Prophet Adam (AS) is believed to be the first human being and the first prophet and messenger in Islam. Adam's role as the father of the human race is looked upon by Muslims with reverence and venerate his wife, Eve (Hawau), as the "mother of mankind". Muslims see Adam as the first Muslim, just as the Qur'an promulgates that all the prophets preached the same faith of submission to God.
According to the Glorious Qur'an, Almighty Allah had already decided before the creation of Adam that mankind (Adam and his progeny) would be placed on earth. Islam does not ascribe mankind's life on earth as a punishment, rather as part of Allah's plan, the All Knowing All Wise.
Almighty Allah (SW) says to the angels in the Qur'an (2:30 - 33): “‘Verily, I am going to place mankind generations after generations on earth.’ They (the angels) said: ‘Will You place therein those who will make mischief therein and shed blood, while we (the angels) glorify You with praises and thanks and sanctify You.’ Allah said: ‘I know that which you do not know.’”
It is evident from the above verses in the Qur'an that Allah had already decided before the creation of Adam, that mankind would be living out their lives on earth. And in spite of the angels remark that Adam would be a creation that would carry out a lot of actions against God's laws. God says that He knows Adam better than do the angels.
Allah then teaches Adam the names of all things and assembles the angels in front of Adam so as to show them that there is more to Adam than they know, particularly the high intellectual capacity of Adam:
"And He taught Adam the names - all of them. Then He showed them to the angels and said, "Inform Me of the names of these, if you are truthful." They said: "Glory to Thee (said the angels), of knowledge We have none, save what Thou Hast taught us: In truth it is Thou Who art perfect in knowledge and wisdom." He said: "O Adam! Tell them their names." When he had told them, Allah said (to the angels): "Did I not tell you that I know the secrets of heaven and earth, and I know what ye reveal and what ye conceal?"
After the angels fail the intellectual test place on them in the earlier verses when angels overlooked man high intellectual capacity that he could use to act otherwise (by doing good), Allah commands that angels (Iblis being among them) to bow down to Adam. And they all do, except for Iblis, who feels that he being made from fire, should not be bowing to Adam who was made from clay. His disobedience of Allah's command followed by his pride and arrogance cause him to fall out of Allah's favor:
"And behold, We said to the angels: "Bow down to Adam" and they bowed down. Not so Iblis: he refused and was haughty: He was of those who reject Faith (those who are disobedient)." (Quran 2:34)
Almighty Allah later places Adam and eve in the garden and tells them that they are free to enjoy of its fruits except not to come near a certain tree: (Quran 2:35) "We said: "O Adam! dwell thou and thy wife in the Garden; and eat of the bountiful things therein as (where and when) ye will; but approach not this tree, or ye run into harm and transgression."
Shaytan (Iblis) then deceives Adam and Eve into eating of the fruits of the tree: (Quran 2:36)
"Then did Shaytan make them slip from the (garden), and get them out of the state (of felicity) in which they had been. We said: "Get ye down, all (ye people), with some of you having enmity towards others. On earth will be your dwelling-place and your means of livelihood - for a time." Allah said to Shaytan: "O Iblis get down from this (Paradise), it is not for you to be arrogant here. Get out for you are of those humiliated and disgraced." Iblis then said: "Allow me respite till the Day they are raised up (Day of Resurrection)." Allah said: "You are of those allowed respite." Iblis said: "Because You have sent me astray, surely I will sit in wait against them (human beings) on Your Straight Path. Then I will come to them from before them and behind them, from their right and from their left and You will not find most of them as thankful ones (they will not be dutiful to You)."
Adam and Eve feel a lot of remorse for their actions, but Allah turns to Adam in mercy and consoles him with forgiveness: (Quran 2:37) says "Then learnt Adam from his Lord words of inspiration, and his Lord turned towards him; for He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful."
Allah then informs Adam that He will send his guidance (in form of revelation) to Adam and his progeny: (Quran 2:38) says "We said: "Get down all of you from this place (the garden), then whenever there comes to you Guidance from Me, and whoever follows My Guidance, there shall be no fear on them, nor shall they grieve."
Obviously, the argument about the original sin does not exist in Islam, neither Idris (Enoch, AS) inherited original sins before taken to heaven nor Ibrahim (Abraham, AS) inherited original sins before he was blessed as father of faith for his devotion in Sacred Ka’aba he built. Almighty Allah has promised that “every soul shall bear his own burden (of sins and good deeds) and unto Him shall be our return” (Quran 2:281).
Also, Almighty Allah granted Adam the power to know the natures of all things and to summarize them by names; that is a bird, that is a star, that is a tree, etc. Allah implanted in Adam an insatiable need for and love of knowledge and a desire to bequeath knowledge to his children. This was the reason for his creation and the secret of his glorification.
 Wikipedia on Adam in Islam. Available online ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adam_in_Islam))
 Quran Tafsir Ibn Kathir. Available online (www.qtafsir.com)