Friday, 27 February 2015


Atheists, agnostics and scientists in their molds seek to disprove the existence of Almighty Allah and claim that creation of heaven and earth is a product of “Big Bang”.
Undoubtedly, Almighty Allah created the heavens and the earth and everything in between them in “six days” as 

He says:

“And indeed We created the heavens and the earth and everything all between then in six days and nothing of 
fatigue touched Us” – Quran 50:38.

One of those numerous creatures of the Supreme Being is Moon with unique signs that prove the existence of Almighty Allah (SW). The Glorious Quran specifically talks about Moon as a mathematical calibrator for measuring time and by extension for calendar. Quran examines the role of moon (and sun) as creatures that follow divine arithmetic order (Hisab) thus:

“The sun and the moon follow courses exactly computed” – Quran 55:5.
"It is He who made sun a lamp, and the moon a light and fixed the phases, so that you can count years and Hisab." - Quran 10:5.

"And He who made the night for rest and sun and moon for reckoning of time. This is the decree of the Exalted, the All-knowing." - Quran 6:96.

Again, crescent moon is the standard to be used for reckoning of time as stipulated in Holy Quran thus:

They ask you about the waxing and waning phases of the crescent moons, say they are to mark fixed times for mankind and Hajj” – Quran 2:189.

Moreover, moon is the measure of months and ordained orbits of celestial bodies as revealed in the Glorious Quran:
"The number of months in the sight of Allah is twelve (in a year) so ordained by Him the day He created the heavens and the earth; of them four are sacred; that is the straight usage.......Verily the transposing (of a prohibited month) is an addition to unbelief: the unbelievers are led to wrong thereby: for they make it lawful one year and forbidden another year in order to adjust the number of months forbidden by Allah and make such forbidden ones lawful. The evil of their course seems pleasing to them. But Allah guideth not those who reject faith." - Quran 9:36-37.

"And the moon, we have measured for her mansions (to traverse) till she returns like the old, (withered, and curved-up like a sickle) date-palm. It is not permitted for sun to catch-up the moon, nor can the night outstrip the day; each swims along in (its own) orbit." - Quran 36:39-40.

In conclusion, just as it was stated by Seyid Ali bin Abi Talib (QW) that the secret of Majesty of Allah (SW) can be understood through His creatures, the natural occurrence of Moon offers a unique sign of the existence of the Almighty Allah (SW) that atheists, agnostics and others seek to deny. We besiege Allah to let us see truth as truth and falsehood as falsehood (Amen).


Of all the calendars mentioned in Part I, Hijrah alone, which is the Muslim divine calendar, is unique for its eventfulness and clear historical background. Its dating began on the 16th of July 622 CE a day after the migration of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) from Makkah to Yathrib (Al Madinah). After a non-such persecution and threats to his life by the Makkah pagans, the messiah of mankind had to migrate for the safety of his life and, by implication, for the rescue of humanity from the wildness of inchoation.

The Islamic calendar, Muslim calendar or Hijri calendar (AH) is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 months in a year of 354 or 355 days. Whereas every month of Hijrah calendar has spiritual importance apart from the universality of its blessings for mankind, its effect from 622 CE is only symbolic of modernity as it actually came into existence over 5,000,000 years ago when it was decreed and its months were christened by Allah Himself. The Qur‘an testifies to this as follows: “Surely, the number of months with Allah is twelve months in one year in Allah’s decree since the day when Allah created the Heavens and earth. Of these months four are sacred (Muharram, Rajab, Dhul- Qa‘dah and Dhul-Hijjah). This is the only straight and righteous path”. (Q. 9: 36). No other calendar can be so referenced in any revealed Book other than the Qur’an.

The twelve Hijri months are named as follows in Arabic:
  1. Muḥarram (المحرّم meaning "forbidden"), so called because battle was forbidden (haram) during this month. Muharram includes the Day of Ashura.
  2. Ṣafar (صفر meaning "void"), supposedly named thus because pagan Arab houses were empty this time of year while their occupants gathered food.
  3. Rabīʿ I (Rabīʿ al-Awwal, ربيع الأوّل) meaning "the first spring".
  4. Rabīʿ II (Rabīʿ ath-Thānī ربيع الثاني or Rabīʿ al-Ākhir ربيع الآخر) meaning "the second (or last) spring".
  5. Jumādā I (Jumādā al-Ūlā, جمادى الأولى meaning "the first month of parched land"). Often considered the pre-Islamic "summer".
  6. Jumādā II (Jumādā ath-Thāniya جمادى الثانية or Jumādā al-Ākhira جمادى الآخرة) meaning "the second (or last) month of parched land".
  7. Rajab (رجب meaning "respect", "honor"). This is another sacred month in which fighting was traditionally forbidden.
  8. Shaʿbān (شعبان meaning "scattered"). Marked the time of year when Arab tribes dispersed to find water.
  9. Ramaḍān (رمضان meaning "scorched"). Ramadan is the most venerated month of the Hijri calendar. During this time, Muslims must fast from dawn till sunset and should give charity to the poor.
  10. Shawwāl (شوّال meaning "raised"). She-camels normally would be in calf at this time of year.
  11. Dhū al-Qaʿda (ذو القعدة meaning "the one of truce"). Dhu al-Qa'da was another month during which war was banned.
  12. Dhū al-Ḥijja (ذو الحجّة meaning "the one of pilgrimage"). The month in which the annual Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca (the Hajj) occurs.

Thus, the significance of Hijrah calendar is manifest not only in the eventfulness of its historical background but also in the divinity of its months. Unlike other calendars which were imposed for the purpose of worshipping material gods or to subject people to psychological subservience, Hijrah calendar is an evidential indication of human salvation. And besides, it has divine sanction.

In Arabic, as in Hebrew, the "first day" of the week corresponds with Sunday of the planetary week. The Islamic weekdays, like those in the Hebrew and Baha'i calendars, begin at sunset, whereas the medieval Christian and planetary weekdays begin at the following midnight. The Christian liturgical day, however, kept in monasteries, begins with vespers (see vesper), which is evening, in line with the other Abrahamic traditions.

But by far the most authentic of them all is Hijrah calendar because of its uniqueness and eventfulness as authenticated by its clear historical background. The idea of putting this calendar into use was suggested by Caliph Umar Bn Khattab in Madinah as a historic landmark for Islamic religion. And it has since been in use throughout the Muslim world especially in determining the beginnings and ends of every lunar month as well as Muslim festivals…….(conclusion)

·  Glassé, Cyril (2001). The New Encyclopedia of Islam, pp. 98–99. Rowman Altamira. ISBN 0-7591-0190-6.
·  Muhammad Aurang Zeb Mughal (2014). Calendars Tell History: Social Rhythm and Social Change in Rural Pakistan. History and Anthropology.



Since the discovery and the use of calendar as an aid to historical records the world has journeyed through various stages of reckoning events through time and space.

One of the earliest calendars which have helped in piloting human history through the millennia is the Chinese calendar which is supposed to have begun in 2379 B.C. In this Calendar, years are reckoned in cycles of 60, each year having a particular name that is a combination of two characters derived schematically from two series of signs, the celestial and the terrestrial. Months are also reckoned in cycles of 60 that are renewed every five years and each month consists of 28 to 30 days.

There is also the Jewish calendar used by the Hebrews which engaged in the reckoning of time from the year of creation as based on a periodic cycle of 19 years with the 3rd, 6th, 8th, 11th, 14th, 17th and 19th year of each cycle designated leap years.

This is followed by the Hindu calendar which began in about 400 CE. It is Lunar-solar in nature and the Hindus believe so much in it even till date. In this calendar, the solar year is divided into 12 months in accordance with the successive entrances of the sun into the signs of the Zodiac, the months varying from 29 to 32 days.

Another calendar is the one called Roman calendar which is an ancient lunar calendar designating the days of the new moon as the ‘calends’ and the days of the full moon as the ‘ides’ while the 19th day before the ‘ides’ are designated as the ‘nones’. The original Roman calendar, introduced about the 7th century BC had 10 months with 304 days in a year that began with March. Two more months, January and February, were added later in the 7th century BC but because the months were only 29 or 30 days long, an extra month had to be intercalated approximately every second year. Thus, the days of the month were designated by the awkward method of counting backward from three dates: the calends, or first of the month; the ides, or middle of the month, falling on the 13th of some months and the 15th of others; and the nones, or 9th day before the ides. This rendered the Roman calendar hopelessly confused especially when officials to whom the addition of days and months was entrusted abused their authority to prolong their terms of office or to hasten or delay elections.

Pagan origin of Roman calendar

Most of the months in the Roman calendar were dedicated to various gods of the Romans. The calendar, though got the blessing of the Christian leadership and was refined by Pope Gregory XIII in 1582 CE, as polytheistic token.

The origins of English naming used by the Gregorian calendar from Roman idol gods:
·         January: Janus (Roman god of gates, doorways, beginnings and endings)
·         February: Februus (Etruscan god of death) Februarius (mensis) (Latin for "month of purification (rituals)" it is said to be a Sabine word, the last month of ancient pre-450 BC Roman calendar). It is related to fever.[54][55][56]
·         March: Mars (Roman god of war)
·         April: "Modern scholars associate the name with an ancient root meaning 'other', i.e. the second month of a year beginning in March."
·         May: Maia Maiestas (Roman goddess of springtime, warmth, and increase)
·         June: Juno (Roman goddess, wife of Jupiter)
·         July: Julius Caesar (Roman dictator) (month was formerly named Quintilis, the fifth month of the calendar of Romulus)
·         August: Augustus (first Roman emperor) (month was formerly named Sextilis, the sixth month of Romulus)
·         September: septem (Latin for seven, the seventh month of Romulus)
·         October: octo (Latin for eight, the eighth month of Romulus)
·         November: novem (Latin for nine, the ninth month of Romulus)
·         December: decem (Latin for ten, the tenth month of Romulus)

The Julian calendar

Also in 45 BC, Julius Caesar decided to use purely solar calendar on the advice of Sosigenes who flourished in the 1st century. This calendar, known as the Julian calendar, fixed the normal year at 365 days, and the leap year, every fourth year, at 366 days. Leap year is so named because the extra day causes any date after February in a leap year to “leap” over one day in the week and to occur two days later in the week than it did in the previous year, rather than just one day later as in a normal year. The Julian calendar also established the order of the months and the days of the week as they exist in present-day calendars. In 44 BC, Julius Caesar changed the name of the month Quintilis to Julius (July), after himself. The month Sextilis was renamed Augustus (August) in honour of the Roman emperor Caesar Augustus, who succeeded Julius Caesar. However, some authorities maintain that Augustus established the length of the months we use today. The Gregorian calendar which puts January as the first month of the year was adopted by England and America in 1752. It is the calendar now commonly used throughout most parts of the world.

Other calendars

Yet, there are other known calendars which include the Roman ecclesiastical calendar used by the Catholic sect, the French revolutionary calendar introduced by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1793, the Gregorian calendar introduced by Pope Gregory XIII in 1582 CE.

But by far the most authentic of them all is Islamic Hijrah calendar because of its uniqueness and eventfulness as authenticated by its clear historical background….…to be concluded next week

Anatoly Liberman, "On A Self-Congratulatory Note, Or, All The Year Round: The Names of The Months" (filed in Oxford Etymologist, 7 March 2007)
Calendar"Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 2008-08-16. Available online<>
Encyclopedia Mythica. Available online at  <>
Fraser, Julius Thomas (1987), Time, the Familiar Stranger (illustrated ed.), Amherst: Univ of Massachusetts Press, ISBN 0-87023-576-1OCLC 15790499
Muslim Ummah Of South West Nigeria (Muswen),  Hijrah New Year Holiday: In Defence Of The Truth. Available online at <>
Whitrow, Gerald James (2003), What is Time?, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-860781-4OCLC 265440481
Wikipedia on Gregorian Calendar. Available online at <>
William Matthew O'Neil, Time and the Calendars, Sydney University Press, 1975


Prophet Adam (AS) is believed to be the first human being and the first prophet and messenger in Islam.  Adam's role as the father of the human race is looked upon by Muslims with reverence and venerate his wife, Eve (Hawau), as the "mother of mankind". Muslims see Adam as the first Muslim, just as the Qur'an promulgates that all the prophets preached the same faith of submission to God.
According to the Glorious Qur'an, Almighty Allah had already decided before the creation of Adam that mankind (Adam and his progeny) would be placed on earth. Islam does not ascribe mankind's life on earth as a punishment, rather as part of Allah's plan, the All Knowing All Wise.
Almighty Allah (SW) says to the angels in the Qur'an (2:30 - 33): “‘Verily, I am going to place mankind generations after generations on earth.’ They (the angels) said: ‘Will You place therein those who will make mischief therein and shed blood, while we (the angels) glorify You with praises and thanks and sanctify You.’ Allah said: ‘I know that which you do not know.’”
It is evident from the above verses in the Qur'an that Allah had already decided before the creation of Adam, that mankind would be living out their lives on earth. And in spite of the angels remark that Adam would be a creation that would carry out a lot of actions against God's laws. God says that He knows Adam better than do the angels.
Allah then teaches Adam the names of all things and assembles the angels in front of Adam so as to show them that there is more to Adam than they know, particularly the high intellectual capacity of Adam:
"And He taught Adam the names - all of them. Then He showed them to the angels and said, "Inform Me of the names of these, if you are truthful." They said: "Glory to Thee (said the angels), of knowledge We have none, save what Thou Hast taught us: In truth it is Thou Who art perfect in knowledge and wisdom." He said: "O Adam! Tell them their names." When he had told them, Allah said (to the angels): "Did I not tell you that I know the secrets of heaven and earth, and I know what ye reveal and what ye conceal?"
After the angels fail the intellectual test place on them in the earlier verses when angels overlooked man high intellectual capacity that he could use to act otherwise (by doing good), Allah commands that angels (Iblis being among them) to bow down to Adam. And they all do, except for Iblis, who feels that he being made from fire, should not be bowing to Adam who was made from clay. His disobedience of Allah's command followed by his pride and arrogance cause him to fall out of Allah's favor:
"And behold, We said to the angels: "Bow down to Adam" and they bowed down. Not so Iblis: he refused and was haughty: He was of those who reject Faith (those who are disobedient)." (Quran 2:34)
Almighty Allah later places Adam and eve in the garden and tells them that they are free to enjoy of its fruits except not to come near a certain tree: (Quran 2:35) "We said: "O Adam! dwell thou and thy wife in the Garden; and eat of the bountiful things therein as (where and when) ye will; but approach not this tree, or ye run into harm and transgression."
Shaytan (Iblis) then deceives Adam and Eve into eating of the fruits of the tree: (Quran 2:36)
"Then did Shaytan make them slip from the (garden), and get them out of the state (of felicity) in which they had been. We said: "Get ye down, all (ye people), with some of you having enmity towards others. On earth will be your dwelling-place and your means of livelihood - for a time." Allah said to Shaytan: "O Iblis get down from this (Paradise), it is not for you to be arrogant here. Get out for you are of those humiliated and disgraced." Iblis then  said: "Allow me respite till the Day they are raised up (Day of Resurrection)." Allah said: "You are of those allowed respite." Iblis said: "Because You have sent me astray, surely I will sit in wait against them (human beings) on Your Straight Path. Then I will come to them from before them and behind them, from their right and from their left and You will not find most of them as thankful ones (they will not be dutiful to You)."
Adam and Eve feel a lot of remorse for their actions, but Allah turns to Adam in mercy and consoles him with forgiveness: (Quran 2:37) says "Then learnt Adam from his Lord words of inspiration, and his Lord turned towards him; for He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful."
Allah then informs Adam that He will send his guidance (in form of revelation) to Adam and his progeny: (Quran 2:38) says "We said: "Get down all of you from this place (the garden), then whenever there comes to you Guidance from Me, and whoever follows My Guidance, there shall be no fear on them, nor shall they grieve."
Obviously, the argument about the original sin does not exist in Islam, neither Idris (Enoch, AS) inherited original sins before taken to heaven nor Ibrahim (Abraham, AS) inherited original sins before he was blessed as father of faith for his devotion in Sacred Ka’aba he built. Almighty Allah has promised that “every soul shall bear his own burden (of sins and good deeds) and unto Him shall be our return” (Quran 2:281).
Also, Almighty Allah granted Adam the power to know the natures of all things and to summarize them by names; that is a bird, that is a star, that is a tree, etc. Allah implanted in Adam an insatiable need for and love of knowledge and a desire to bequeath knowledge to his children. This was the reason for his creation and the secret of his glorification.
[1]   Wikipedia on Adam in Islam. Available online (
[2]   Quran Tafsir Ibn Kathir. Available online (